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# Fibonacci Sequence

Fibonacci spirals begin at 1 minute 9 seconds.

## Introduction

The Fibonacci sequence is a summation series created by adding the last two numbers of the sequence for the next number in the sequence.

This requires two starting numbers, or seed numbers, to begin the sequence. The classical Fibonacci sequence begins with a pair of ones (1 and 1).

A generalized Fibonacci sequence may begin with any pair of numbers, yet many of the qualities of the summation sequence endure.

The mathematical notation of the Fibonacci Sequence, where 'n' is the index to the sequence position:

F[1] = 1, F[2] = 1, F[n] = F[n-1] + F[n-2], … (continuing with increasing indices [n])

## Son of a good guy

In today's opinion, the work of Fibonacci marks the rebirth of Western mathematics. [...] It was the new beginning of the research on the history of mathematics in the early 19th Century in Italy, which led to a rediscovery of Fibonacci, and therein a recognition of his great importance in the history of mathematics.

Leanardo of Pisa is the first person known to have mentioned the summation sequence in a mathematical problem concerning rabbit population. One rabbit plus one more rabbit (2) produces a third rabbit, etc. as 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, ...

As a son traveling with his father, who was a trade emissary for the Italian city of Pisa, Leonardo was exposed to Arabian decimal arithmetic.

Leonardo wrote of the rabbit population summation series in his book that brought Europe out of Roman Numeral mathematics, Liber Abaci (Book of Calculation), published in 1202. Almost seven centuries later, in the 1870s, the name 'Fibonacci' was applied to Leonardo by a mathematician Edouardo Lucas, who coined that name in books he wrote on the Fibonacci sequence. Leonardo's father was called Bonacci (meaning good natured man). Filius Bonacci is the Latin for son of Bonacci, shortened to Fibonacci.

Roughly translating, Fibonacci means a good man's son.

## Summation from zero

Sometimes mathematicians begin the Fibonacci Sequence with zero. Philosophically, nothing, or zero, is augmented by one (1), to create a fundamentally universal relationship as ensuing summation continues.

Zero + 1 = 1; 1 + 1 = 2; 1 + 2 = 3; 2 + 3 = 5;…

## The sequence

The first twenty Fibonacci numbers:

1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, 144, 233, 377, 610, 987, 1597, 2584, 4184, 6765

## Fibonacci Numbers and the Golden Section

The universal constant of the Golden Ratio, an approximation of Phi, or Φ, is found as the quotient between any adjacent two numbers (neighboring) in the Fibonacci sequence with increasing precision as the numeric sequence grows larger. The division of any adjacent pairs of the sequence approximate Phi, or (Phi - 1) when divided:

233 ÷ 144 = 1.6180555… =~ Phi (approx. within 0.00002)

144 ÷ 233 = 0.6180257… = Phi - 1 =~ phi (approx. within 0.000008)

Fibonacci Numbers and the Golden Section
Dr. Ron Knott's Most excellent resource
The Fibonacci numbers and the first 300 Fibonacci numbers, completely factorised
Dr. Ron Knott's work at Maths.Surrey.ac.uk

## A special generalized Fibonacci sequence

Imploding Phi —a tabulation and graphs of a special seed pair of oppositely signed Phi degrees, and graphs of the sequence and the quotients of adjacent pairs.
by DonEMitchell
This article Imploding Phi exemplifies one of many general Fibonacci sequence seed-pairs that produce a non-typical Fibonacci Sequence —Rather than grow larger exponentially, the sequence oscillates and approaches zero, then just prior to becoming zero, the identity at play is lost to decimal round-off near the computational limit of the spreadsheet, after which the summation sequence proceeds with exponential growth.

This very same behavior is found in the analytical equation that produces the general Fibonacci sequence along the real number line. See Binet's Formula below.

Moreover, the quotient of neighboring numbers in the general sequence of Fibonacci numbers, when the summation sequence approaches zero, flips from -(Phi)-1 to Phi (-0.618 to 1.618), when alternate signs of adjacent degrees (powers) are used as seed numbers to start the sequence.

More → A special generalized Fibonacci Sequence seeded by certain Phi Degrees URL: http://groupkos.com/science2/library/fibonacci/gibonacci_sequence_phi_implosion.html

## To do — Fibonacci's Belly Button

### Using Binet's X-Ray-Glasses.

Expand the said impulse event into an analystic mapping to a 2D surface using Binet's Forumla to generate a generate surface texture with a third dimension set as the iteration-depth of the impulse event —or some such threshold mapping, very similar to generating a Mandelbrot X-Y map colored by iterations of an orbit within selection-thresholds.

This thought may be akin, if not akin the now missing work by Prof. Reiter, of escape basin in iterated golden ratio functions. This to the Reiter-escape may be like the Julia set of each Mandelbrot map point. I jus dunno this stuff.

don89 DonEMitchell (talk) 17:21, 18 April 2015 (MDT)

## Modulo patterns in the Fibonacci Sequence

THE FIBONACCI SEQUENCE MODULO M by Marc Renault
Gibonacci Bracelets, mathematical magic, and modulo patterns
Table of Moduli of Fibonacci Sequence

## Digital roots of Fibonacci numbers

Table 1. The digital roots of the Fibonacci sequence.

Another modulo pattern is found in the Fibonacci sequence which is not technically a modulo (divide by N), as the zero element is not used. This is a pattern in the digital roots of the sequence. The root is found by adding the digits to obtain one remaining number as one digit.

Examples of digital root compression:

Compress the 13th Fibonacci number, 233, into a digital root:
2+3=5, 5+3=8
Compress the 17th Fibonacci number, 1597, into a digital root:
1+5=6, 6+9=15 which is 1+5=6, and finally, 6+7=13, which is 1+3=4

Curiously, the digital roots of the second group of 24 Fibonacci numbers are identical to the first 24 digital roots of the Fibonacci sequence. The pattern of the same 24 digital roots continue repeating throughout the Fibonacci summation sequence ad infinitum.

Also notice that the first and second half of any Fibonacci sequence of 24 roots digitally compress in respective pairs to the number nine. I.e., the 1st and the 13th digital roots sum together, and that sum then digitally compresses to nine. The 2nd and the 14th, to nine, etc. See Table 1 column, Root of Root Sums.

## 60-Number repeating pattern in the last digits of the Fibonacci Sequence

Jain 108 says
April 13, 2017 at 10:52 am
Just for the record, I wrote about this wheel of 60 in a published book in 2010, 3 years before Khan, showing the 60 Pattern and the cardinal alignment of the zeroes. It is in one of my 9 books from the series THE BOOK OF PHI, volume 3, sub-titled “The 108 Codes, an Introduction” pages 35 onwards, chapter 3, called Time Code 12:24:60 Encrypted in the Fibonacci Sequence.
http://www.jainmathemagics.com/bookofphivol3/
and an ebook version is also available
http://www.jainmathemagics.com/ebookofphivol3/
Regards, Jain 108
http://www.jainmathemagics.com/

## Negative Fibonacci Numbers

Negafibonacci Sequence

useful in tiling hyperbolic surfaces with triangles < 180° sum of the internal angels.

Identity:

F[–n] = (-1)n+1F[n]

Negafibonacci Numbers and the Hyperbolic Plane[1]

Abstract
All integers can be represented uniquely as a sum of zero or more "negative" Fibonacci numbers F-1 = 1, F-2 = -1, F-3 = 2, F-4 = -3, provided that no two consecutive elements of this infinite sequence are used. The NegaFibonacci representation leads to an interesting coordinate system for a classic infinite tiling of the hyperbolic plane by triangles, where each triangle has one 90° angle, one 45° angle, and one 36° angle.
Mathematical Association of America http://www.maa.org

## Zeckendorf's theorem

Zeckendorf's theorem, named after Belgian mathematician Edouard Zeckendorf, is a theorem about the representation of integers as sums of Fibonacci numbers.

Zeckendorf's theorem states that every positive integer can be represented in a unique way as the sum of one or more distinct Fibonacci numbers in such a way that the sum does not include any two consecutive Fibonacci numbers.

More: (Wikipedia.org) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zeckendorf%27s_theorem

## Generalized Fibonacci m-numbers

PeaceFromHarmony.org
Excerpts from The Mathematics of Harmony: Clarifying the Origins and Development of Mathematics
by Alexey Stakhov
URL: http://www.peacefromharmony.org/docs/7-27_Stakhov_Math_of_Harmony_EN.pdf

“4.2. The generalized Fibonacci m-numbers, Metallic Means by Vera Spinadel, Gazale formulas and a general theory of hyperbolic functions. Another generalization of Fibonacci numbers was introduced recently by Vera W. Spinadel [47], Midchat Gazale [48], Jay Kappraff [49] and other scientists. We are talking about the generalized Fibonacci m-numbers that for a given positive real number m>0 are given by the recursive relation:

Fm(n) = mFm(n-1) + Fm(n-2); Fm(0)=0, Fm(1)=1.(25)

First of all, we note that the recursive relation (25) is reduced to the recursive relation Fn=Fn-1+Fn-2 for the case m=1. For other values of m, the recursive relation (25) generates an infinite number of new recursive numerical sequences.

The following characteristic algebraic equation follows from (25):

x2mx – 1 = 0, (26)

which for the case m=1 is reduced to x2=X+1. A positive root of Eq. (26) generates an infinite number of new “harmonic” proportions – “Metallic Means” by Vera Spinadel [47], which are expressed by the following general formula:

(27)

Note that for the case m=1 the formula (27) gives the classical golden mean Φ1 = (1+√5)/2. The metallic means possess the following unique mathematical properties:

(28)

which are generalizations of similar properties for the classical golden mean Φ1=Φ(m=1):

(29)

Note that the expressions (27), (28) and (29), without doubt, satisfy Dirac’s “Principle of Mathematical Beauty” and emphasize a fundamental characteristic of both the classical golden mean and the metallic means.

Recently, by studying the recursive relation (25), the Egyptian mathematician Midchat Gazale[48] deduced the following remarkable formula given by Fibonacci m'-numbers:

(30)

where m>0 is a given positive real number, Φm is the metallic mean given by (27), n = 0, ±1, ±2, ±3, ....

The author of the present article [Stakhov] named the formula (30) in [34] formula Gazale for the Fibonacci m-numbers after Midchat Gazale. The similar Gazale formula for the Lucas m-numbers is deduced in [34]:

Lm(n) = Φmn + (-1)nΦm-n(31)

It is appropriate to give the following comparative table, which gives a relationship between the golden mean and metallic means as new mathematical constants of Nature.

A beauty of these formulas is charming. This gives a right to suppose that Dirac’s “Principle of Mathematical Beauty” can be applicable fully to the metallic means and hyperbolic Fibonacci and Lucas m-functions. And this, in its turn, gives hope that these mathematical results can become a base for theoretical natural sciences.

A general theory of hyperbolic functions given by (32)-(35) can lead to the following scientific theories of a fundamental character: (1) Lobachevski’s “golden” geometry; (2) Minkovski’s “golden” geometry as an original interpretation of Einstein’s special theory of relativity. In Lobachevski’s “golden” geometry and Minkovski's "golden" geometry, the processes of the real world are modeled, in the general case, by the hyperbolic Fibonacci and Lucas m-functions (32)-(35). The classical Lobachevski geometry, Minkowski geometry and Bodnar geometry [42] are partial cases of this general hyperbolic geometry. We propose that this approach is of great importance for contemporary mathematics and theoretical physics and could become the source of new scientific discoveries.

It is clear that all mathematical results given by formulas (25)-(45) satisfy Dirac’s “Principle of Mathematical Beauty.” There can be no doubt that these beautiful mathematical results will be widely used in modern theoretical natural sciences. Bodnar’s geometry [42] provides hope of this.

Source: http://www.peacefromharmony.org/docs/7-27_Stakhov_Math_of_Harmony_EN.pdf Retrieved 15:37, 8 February 2011 (MST)

## Cassini Formula

Excerpts from
Hyperbolic Fibonacci and Lucas Functions, “Golden” Fibonacci Goniometry, Bodnar’s Geometry, and Hilbert’s Fourth Problem
——Part I. Hyperbolic Fibonacci and Lucas Functions and “Golden” Fibonacci Goniometry
by Alexey Stakhov and Samuil Aranson

“The arbitrary three adjacent Fibonacci numbers F(n-1), F(n), F(n+1) (n = 0, +/-1, +/-2, +/-3, …) are connected between themselves with the following mathematical identity:

F2(n) - F(n-1)F(n+1) = (-1)n+1 .(1.5)

The formula (1.5) is called Cassini formula after the French astronomer Giovanni Domenico Cassini (1625-1712) who deduced this formula for the first time.

In 19th century the French mathematician Jacques Philippe Marie Binet (1786-1856) deduced two remarkable formulas, which connect Fibonacci and Lucas numbers with the golden mean:

(1.6)

Note that these formulas were discovered by de Moivre (1667-1754) and Nikolai Bernoulli (1687-1759) a one century before Binet. However, in modern mathematical literature these formulas are called Binet formulas.

## Fibonacci Coding

In mathematics, Fibonacci coding is a universal code which encodes positive integers into binary code words. All tokens end with "11" and have no "11" before the end.

More: (Wikipedia.org) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fibonacci_coding

## Binary Fibonacci numbers plotted

From Mathworld.com URL: http://mathworld.wolfram.com/FibonacciNumber.html

## Fibonacci and Continued Fractions

T. E. Phipps, Jr., 908 S. Busey Ave., Urbana, Illinois 61801 tephipps at sbcglobal.net
“The Fibonacci sequence is used as a “hook” to direct interest toward generalizations.”
Keywords: Fibonacci, difference equations, continued fractions, generalized continued fractions, infinite matrix products.
URL: http://www.worldsci.org/pdf/abstracts/abstracts_2362.pdf

## Fibonacci Sequence in Music

• Enjoy the insight of a student's project composing with overlaid Fibonacci sequence numbers (youtube)

## Fibonacci Sequence in Nature

Fibonacci Numbers and Nature
Dr. Ron Knott's Most excellent resource
Phyllotaxis Math.Smith.edu
• Analysis of Spirals in Nature Dutch
• Fibonacci Numbers in Nature & the Golden Ratio World-Mysteries.com
• "The Fibonacci numbers are Nature's numbering system. They appear everywhere in Nature, from the leaf arrangement in plants, to the pattern of the florets of a flower, the bracts of a pinecone, or the scales of a pineapple. The Fibonacci numbers are therefore applicable to the growth of every living thing, including a single cell, a grain of wheat, a hive of bees, and even all of mankind."

Retrieved 09:02, 20 July 2013 (MDT) from http://physics.aps.org/synopsis-for/10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.248104

American Physical Society –APS.org

## Synopsis: How Plants Do Their Math

Phyllotaxis, Pushed Pattern-Forming Fronts, and Optimal Packing
Matthew Pennybacker and Alan C. Newell
Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 248104 (2013)
Published June 13, 2013
From sunflower seeds to artichoke flowerings, many features in plants follow patterns arranged in terms of Fibonacci numbers: 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13… (each number is the sum of the previous two). Research has established that these patterns are optimally packed configurations (of plant organs such as flowers, leaves, or seeds) that maximize access to light and nutrients and thus provide an evolutionary advantage. But how does a plant know how to grow such optimal morphologies? According to a paper in Physical Review Letters, Fibonacci patterns can emerge as a result of the physical and biochemical mechanisms underlying plant growth.
Matthew Pennybacker and Alan C. Newell at the University of Arizona, Tucson, study the case of a sunflower head, in which seeds are grown in annuli surrounding a central region of undifferentiated cells called the meristem—a plant tissue often compared to stem cells in animals. As new seeds are added, the annuli shrink in radius until the head is filled, with the seeds arranged in families of concentric spirals. The authors apply a model that describes how auxin—a growth hormone synthesized by the plant and transported by certain proteins—is distributed within the meristem. The positions in which auxin concentration is maximal indicate where new seeds are formed. Their simulations accurately predict that sunflower seeds form clockwise and counterclockwise spirals, and that the numbers of the two types of spirals are always two consecutive ones in a Fibonacci series. The results suggest that optimal packings may arise in systems described by related families of partial differential equations. – Matteo Rini

APS » Journals » Phys. Rev. Lett. » Volume 110 » Issue 24

Source URL: http://prl.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v110/i24/e248104

Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 248104 (2013) [5 pages]

Phyllotaxis, Pushed Pattern-Forming Fronts, and Optimal Packing

Matthew Pennybacker and Alan C. Newell
Department of Mathematics, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721, USA
[Selected for a Synopsis in Physics]
[Editors' Suggestion]
Received 12 December 2012; published 13 June 2013

Abstract

We demonstrate that the pattern forming partial differential equation derived from the auxin distribution model proposed by Meyerowitz, Traas, and others gives rise to all spiral phyllotaxis properties observed on plants. We show how the advancing pushed pattern front chooses spiral families enumerated by Fibonacci sequences with all attendant self-similar properties, a new amplitude invariant curve, and connect the results with the optimal packing based algorithms previously used to explain phyllotaxis. Our results allow us to make experimentally testable predictions.
DOI:10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.248104
PACS:87.18.Hf, 02.30.Jr, 02.60.Lj, 87.10.Ed

pennybacker@math.arizona.edu

## Binet's Formula

Fig. 1. Binet's formula curve of real numbers between the Fibonacci sequence integers, from F[-5] through F[5].

Real, fractional Fibonacci numbers (between the integer numbers) are produced by Binet's analytic formula shown in Fig. 1.

Abraham de Moivre (1667-1754) was the first to work with the mathematics involved, though the formula is named after Jacques Philippe Marie Binet (1786-1856).

The formula in Fig. 1 includes the Golden Ratio and the inverse of the Golden ratio, both using the algebraic form written with the square root of five.

However, the classical form is often seen simplified with the golden ratio substituted by the Greek letter Φ and the inverse 1/Phi denoted as lower case φ. The Binet formula then looks less intimidating with the substitutions of labels:

F[n] =n - (-1/Φ)n ) / √5

or

F[n] =n - (-φ)n ) / √5

Programming Problem
Please be advised —most software interpreters I tried (circa 2010) do not support raising a number to a fractional power. Some did accept the fractional exponent value, but did not throw an exception-error while returning an incorrect value. I found no popular interpreters (Google spreadsheet, Open Office, etc.) that would accept negative values. Most interpreters did throw an error when passed a negative exponent.

Solution: Substitute the problematic cyclic -1N term with this identity:

-1N = cos(Nπ)

This avoids the negative-exponent software interpreter bugs, swapping mathematical equivalence by the well behaved cosine function.

Binet Formula (Proof By Induction)
FabulousFibonacci.com
http://fabulousfibonacci.com/portal/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=22&Itemid=22

Dr. Robert Knott, in his section on Binet's formula:

maths.surrey.ac.uk
Binet's formula for non-integer values of n?

## Binet's formula with a twist

The POVRay Code that generated the curve in Fig. 1 was modified to rotate the Fibonacci real numbers around the axis of the advancing index, the axis from the negative to positive indices. The beautiful curves produced, seen below, are believed by this author to have never been seen before [please advise], though the mathematical significance is unknown, but the spiral curves speak very loudly to the intuitive mind. Click on the images below for larger images. A zip file is available with POVRay code to explore Binet's forumula. URL: http://groupkos.com/science2/library/fibonacci/binet/binet_curve_2-symmetries_x.zip (594 KB)

## Generalized Binet Dynamics

A parameter space image of Binet's Forumla, an analytic function of the Fibonacci sequence. Figure 1 from Generalized Binet Dynamics by Chen Ning and Clifford A. Reiter
by Clifford A. Reiter, Professor of Mathematics, Lafayette College, Easton, Pennsylvania (http://webbox.lafayette.edu/~reiterc/) and Chen Ning

ABSTRACT

The Binet formula provides a mechanism for the Fibonacci numbers to be viewed as a function of a complex variable. The Binet formula may be generalized by using other bases and multiplicative parameters that also give functions of a complex variable.[2] Thus, filled-in Julia sets that exhibit escape time may be constructed. Moreover, these functions have computable critical points and hence we can create escape time images of the critical point based upon the underlying multiplicative parameter. Like the classic Mandelbrot set, these parameter space images provide an atlas of Julia sets.
Published at:

Sources:

Escape Time Zooms of the Fibonacci Numbers

## Audio Program Notes

The Fibonacci Sequence BBC Radio 4 (BBC.co.uk)
Counting musical rythms in ancient India is assumed to be the source of the knowledge of what is now called the Fibonacci Sequence.
Jackie —Spain had 'modern mathematics' two centuries prior to Leonardo of Pisa popularized in numeral mathematics [Liber Abacci 1202].
Fibonacci's book brought modern math to Italy, while Spain was a separated revolution in modernization.
Antoin Lucas named the 'sequence of perfect numbers' 'Fibonacci Sequence', and the nick-name Fibonacci for Leonardo of Pisa from the 1800s.
Kepler, 1600s, hints on vegetable ratios (phyllotaxis).
Post-cards are Golden Rectangles, and many picture frames in the Louvre.
Euclid, book VI: How to divide a line into the extreme and mean ratio?
Pleasing proportions are near the Golden Ratio. Perhaps we project the ratio in our artifacts without knowledge of the ratio [Jackie].
Platonic solids — tetra- and octa- hedra are described by coordinates of plus/minus one, while the icosa- and dodeca- hedra use Golden ratio coordinates.
Golden Ratio is from ancient Greek geometry and line ratios. Pentagon spiritual figure among Pythagoreans.
Fibonacci numbers mixed in later in Mideval times. Decarte fused geometry and numbers, separate things before him.
Fibonacci numbers are from Arabic and Indian roots, Golden Ratio from ancient Greek [sqrt(5)+1)/2, can be writtne as 5^(.5)*(.5)+(.5) dem].
Patchouli's book, illustrated by Leonardo da Vinci, facial structures, etc, drew Platonic solids as exercise in perspective.
Victorian 1800s —nature and plants realized, tomato has 2 or 3 inside, five outside, cauliflower -5 & 8 flourets, pinapple, 5 & 8 & 13 spirals. Natural solution to a packing problem —0.618 seeds per turn. Gives Fibonacci number of spirals.
Flowers have Fib. numbers and double Fib. number ratios. Four petals are double-two. No flowers have seven.
Vitruvian Man is an animal example [said to not hold Fib. numbers -dem]
Cacti and succulents: 4s, 7s, 11s —Lucas numbers, Fib and Lucas recursive sequences both reveal the Golden Section
Fib. seq. introduces recursive sequences as formula for many sequences.
Any Fib Seq. number squared is one less than the product of the left/right numbers.
Dividable numbers, like 3/6, have Fib. N. at the indices of 3 & 6 that are divisable, 2/8.
Prime index positions are important, acts as markers throughout.
Fib. N. generate Pythagorean triples (e.g. 3,4,5 triangle).
Nature built by simple operations, producing immense complexity —Fib. N. is very simple generator of growth, and rich sequence.
Carducea early 1900s, 'Motula' as a guiding principle in architecture.
Scottsman D.W. Thompson on Growth and Form, 1917, patterns in shapes in nature. Defamation between animal head patterns.
Church in 1910.
Phi, from the name Phideas the Parthenon architect —powers add to give other powers. Nature can do multiplication by addition.
Fibonacci text wasn't published until the 19th century in Italy, no printed editions, just early manuscript copies.
Music —Bartok Cabucci, naturally drawn to Fib. Seq. as a skeleton producing an aesthetic growth and climax.
California —sea shell sections used to produce 30% more efficient rotor.
Liber Abacci now available in an English translation.

The Fibonacci Association Official website
Fibonacci Number MathWorld.Wolfram.com
Mathematica Fibonacci reference
Fibonacci Resources
Fibonacci numbers, Lucas numbers, and their relatives.
What is a Fibonacci Number?
by Harry J. Smith
Taking The Magic Out Of Fibonacci Numbers Investopedia.com
"The Fibonacci studies are popular trading tools. Understanding how they are used and to what extent they can be trusted is important to any trader who wants to benefit from the ancient mathematician's scientific legacy."
Fibonacci and Continued Fractions
T. E. Phipps, Jr., Urbana, Illinois
“The Fibonacci sequence is used as a “hook” to direct interest toward generalizations.”
Keywords: Fibonacci, difference equations, continued fractions, generalized continued fractions, infinite matrix products.

## References

1. Knuth, D. "Negafibonacci Numbers and the Hyperbolic Plane" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Mathematical Association of America, The Fairmont Hotel, San Jose, CA [Not Available]. 2010-05-13 from http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p206842_index.html
2. Dave's Short Course on Complex Numbers –The Fundamental Theorem of Algebra (1999) David E. Joyce, Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Clark University, Worcester, MA (http://www.clarku.edu/~djoyce/complex/fta.html)