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All About Gravitational Waves

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All About Gravitational Waves
by Gregory Hodowanec

Reproduced without permission from
Radio-Electronics magazine April 1986
by The Trace - June 1, 1991

Abstract:

Are gravitational waves  the  source of noise in electronic devices?
The author believes so, and describes a simple circuit to detect the
waves.

The author has developed a new cosmology that predicts the existance
of a new  type  of gravitational  signal.   We  are  publishing  the
results of some of his experiments in the hope that  it  will  foter
experimentation as well as alternate explanations for his results.
--------------------------------------------------------------------

Einstein predicted the  existence of gravity waves - the counterpart
of light and radio waves - many years  ago.   However,  he predicted
the existence of  quadrature-type gravity waves.  Unfortunately,  no
one has been able to detect quadrature-type gravity waves.

Consequently, the author developed, over the years, a new cosmology,
or theory of  the  universe,  in  which  monopole  gravity waves are
predicted.  The author's theory does  not  preclude the existence of
Einsteinian gravity waves,  but they are viewed as  being  extremely
weak, very long  in  wavelength,  and  therefore  very  difficult to
detect unequivocally.  Monopole  signals,  however,  are  relatively
strong, so they are much more easily detected.

Monopole gravity waves have been detected for many  years; it's just
that we've been  used to calling them 1/f "noise" signals or flicker
noise.  Those noise  signals can be seen in low-frequency electronic
circuits.  More recently,  such  signals  have been called Microwave
Background Radiation (MBR);  most  scientists  believe  that to be a
relic of the so-called "big bang" that created the universe.

In the author's  cosmology, the  universe  is  considered  to  be  a
finite, spherical, closed  system; in other words,  it  is  a  black
body.

Monopole  gravity  waves  "propagate"  any  distance in Planck time,
which  is  about  10^-44  seconds;   hence,   their  effects  appear
everywhere almost instantaneously.  The sum total of background flux


Page 1

in the universe gives rise to the observed microwave temperature, in
our universe, of about three degrees kelvin.

Sources of monopole   gravity  waves  include  common  astrophysical
phenomena like supernovas,  novas,  starquakes,  etc.,  as  well  as
earthly phenomena like  earthquakes,  core  movements,  etc.   Those
sorts of cosmic   and  earthly  events  cause  delectable  temporary
variations in the amount of gravitational-impule  radiation  present
in the universe.

Novas, especially supernovas (which are large exploding  stars), are
very effective generators of oscillatory monopole gravity waves.

Those signals have a Gaussian waveshape and a lifetime of only a few
tens of milliseconds.   They  can  readily impart a portion of their
energy to free particles like molecules, atoms, and electrons.

The background flux, in general, is  fairly constant.  Variations in
the backgrouns flux   are  caused  by  movements   of   large   mass
concentrations like galaxies, super-galaxies, and black holes.

These movements create gravitational "shadows," analogous to optical
shadows.  When the  earth-moon-sun  alignment  is  just  right,  the
gravtational shadow of a small, highly  concentrated mass -- a black
hole, for example  -- can be detected and tracked  from  the  Earth.
So, keeping those  facts  in  mind,  let's look at several practical
methods of detecting gravitational energy.

Electrons and Capacitors
------------------------

As  stated  above,  gravity-wave  energy can be imparted to ordinary
objects.  Of special interest to us  are the loosely-bound electrons
in ordinary capacitors.  Perhaps you have  wondered how a discharged
high-valued electrolytic capacitor  (say 1000 uF at  35  volts)  can
develop a charge  even  though it is disconnected from an electrical
circuit.

While some of  that  charging could  be  attributed  to  a  chemical
reaction in the capacitor,  I  believe that much  of it is caused by
gravity-wave impulses bathing the capacitor at all  times.   And the
means by which  gravity  waves transfer energy is similar to another
means of energy transfer that is  well  known  to  readers of Radio-
Electronics: the electric field.

As shown in Fig. 1-a, the presence of a large mass  near  the plates
of a capacitor  causes a polarized alignment of the molecules in the
capacitor, as though an external  DC voltage had been applied to the
capacitor, as shown in Fig. 1-b.

You can verify that yourself:

    Drop a   fully-discharged   1000-uF,   35-volt   electrolytic
    capacitor broadside on a hard surface from a height of
    two or three feet.

    Then measure the voltage across the capacitor  with  a  high-
    impedance voltmeter.

                                      Page 2
    You will  find  a  voltage  of  about  10 to 50 mV.  Drop the
    capacitor several times on opposite sides, don't let it
    bounce, and note how charge  builds  up to a saturation level
    that may be as high as one volt.

In that experiment,  the  energy  of  free-fall  is   converted   to
polarization energy in  the  capacitor.  The loosely-bound electrons
are literally "jarred" into new polarization positions.

In a similar  manner,  gravitational   impulses   from  space  "jar"
electrons into new polarization positions.

Here's another experiment:

    Monitor a  group  of  similar  capacitors that  have  reached
    equilibrium conditions   while   being   bathed   by   normal
    background gravitational impulses.

    You'll observe that, over a period of time, the voltage

Page 3


    across all those open-circuited capacitors will be equal, and
    that it will depend only on the average background flux at
    the time.   Temperature  should  be  kept  constant  for that
    experiment.

I interpret those facts to mean that  a  capacitor develops a charge
that reflects the  monopole  gravity-wave signals existing  at  that
particular location in  the  universe.   So, although another device
could be used, we will use a capacitor as the sensing element in the
gravity-wave detectors described next.

The simplest detector
---------------------

Monopole gravity waves generate small  impulse  currents that may be
coupled to an  op-amp configured as a current-to-voltage  converter,
as shown in  Fig.  2.   The current-to-voltage converter is a nearly
lossless current-measuring device.

It gives an output voltage that is  proportional  to  the product of
the input current  (which  can  be  in  the  picoampere  range)  and
resistor R1.  Linearity  is  assured  because  the  non-DC-connected
capacitor maintains the op-amp's input terminals at virtual ground.

The detector's output may be coupled  to a high-impedance digital or
analog voltmeter, an  audio  amplifier,  or  an  oscilloscope.    In
addition, a chart  recorder  could  be  used to record the DC output
over a period of time, thus providing a record of long-term "shadow-
drift" effects.

Resistor R2 and capacitor C2 protect  the  output  of  the  circuit;
their values will depend on what you're driving.  To experiment, try
a 1k resistor and a 0.1 uF capacitor.

The output of  the detector (Eo) may appear in two forms,  depending
on whether or  not  stabilizing  capacitor Cx is connected.  When it
is, the output will be highly amplified  1/f noise signals, as shown
in Fig. 3-a.

Without Cx, the circuit becomes a "ringing" circuit  with  a slowly-
decaying output that  has a resonant frequency of 500-600 Hz for the
component values shown.  In that  configuration,  the  circuit  is a
Quantum Non-Demolition (QND) circuit, as astrophysicists call it; it
will now actually display the amplitude variations  (waveshapes)  of
the passing gravitational-impulse bursts, as shown in Fig. 3-b.

An interesting variation  on the detector may be built by increasing
the value of sensing capacitor C1  to  about  1000-1600  uF.   After
circuit stability is  achieved, the circuit will respond  to  almost
all gravity-wave signals in the universe.  By listening carefully to
the audio output  of  the  detector you can hear not only normal 1/f
noise, but also many "musical" sounds  of  space,  as  well as other
effects that will not be disclosed here.

Page 4

An improved detector
--------------------

Adding a buffer  stage  to  the  basic circuit, as shown in Fig.  4,
makes the detector easier to work  with.   The  IC  used is a common
1458 (which is a dual 741).  One op-amp is used as the detector, and
the other op-amp multiplies the detector's output by a factor of 20.
Potentiometer R3 is used to adjust the output to the desired level.

When used unshielded,  the  circuits  presented here  are  not  only
sensitive detectors of   gravitational   impulses,   but   also   of
*electromagnetic* signals ranging from 50-500 GHz!  Hence, these
circuits could be used to detect  many  types  of signals, including
radar signals.

To detect only  gravity  waves, and not EMI, the circuit  should  be
shielded against all  electromagnetic  radiation.  Both circuits are
low in cost and easy to build.  Assembly  is  non-critical, although
proper wiring practices should be followed.

Initially, you should  use the op-amps specified;  don't  experiment
with other devices  until  you  attain satisfactory results with the
devices called for.  Later you can experiment with other components,
like low-power op-amps, especially  CMOS  types,  which  have diodes
across their inputs to protect them against high input voltages.

Those diodes make  them  much  less  sensitive  to   electromagnetic
radiation, so circuits  that use those devices may be used to detect
gravity-waves without shielding.

The circuit in Fig. 4 is the QND or  ringing  type, but the feedback
resistance is variable from 0.5 to 2 megohms.  That  allows  you  to
tune the circuit to the natural  oscillating frequency  of different
astrophysical events.

Huge supernova bursts, for example, have much larger amplitudes, and
much lower frequencies  of  oscillation  than  normal supernovas and
novas.  Hence you can tune the detector for the supernova burst rate
that interests you.  With the component values given in Fig.  4, the
resonant frequency of the circuitcan  be  varied between 300-900 Hz.
The circuit of Fig. 4, or a variant thereof, was used  to obtain all
the experimental data discussed below.

Page 5

In addition, the  circuits that we've described in this article were
built in an aluminum chassis and then  located  within an additional
steel box to  reduce  pickup  of  stray  EMI.   Power   and   output
connections were made through filter-type feedthrough capacitors.

In the QND   mode,  coupling  the  detector's  output  to  an  audio
amplifier and an  oscilloscope  gives  impressive  sound  and  sight
effects.

Fluctuations generally reflect passing gravitational  shadows.   The
author has taken  much  data  of  the  sort  to  be discussed; let's
examine a few samples of that data  to  indicate the kind of results
you can expect, and ways of interpreting those results.

Sample scans
------------

Shown in Fig.  5 is an unusual structure that was  repeated  exactly
the next day,  but  four  minutes earlier.  The pattern was followed
for several weeks, moving four minutes earlier per day.

That confirms the  observation  that   the  burst  response  of  the
detector was related to our location on earth with  respect  to  the
rest of the   universe.    The   change  of  four  minutes  per  day
corresponds with the relative movements  of  the  earth and the body
that was casting the "shadow."

The plot of Fig. 6 appears to be a supernova, probably  in  our  own
galaxy, caught in the act of exploding.  The plot of Fig. 7 was made
four days after  another supernova explosion; that plot reveals that
that supernova left  a  well-developed   black   hole   and   "ring"
structure.

You may find it interesting to consider that visual  indications  of
those supernovas will  not  be  seen for several thousand years!  As
such, it might  be  "quite  a  while"   before   we   get  a  visual
confirmation of our suspected supernova!

Last, Fig. 8 shows a plot of the moon's gravitational  shadow during
the eclipse of  May  30,  1984.   Note that the gravitational shadow
preceded the optical shadow by about eight minutes!

That gives credence  to  our  claim   that   gravitational   effects
propagate instantaneously.  Relatedly, but not shown  here,  a  deep
shadow is consistently  detected  whenever  the center of the galaxy
appears on the meridian (180 degrees)  hinting of the existence of a
"black hole" in that region.

Conclusions
-----------

In this article we discussed the highlights of a new  theory  of the
universe that predicts the existence of monopole gravity waves.   We
then presented details  of  a  circuit  that  can  be used to detect
monopole gravity waves.

The author has monitored those signals for ten years so is confident
that you will be able to duplicate  those results.  Needless to say,
the subject of gravity waves is a largely unexplored  one, and there
is much yet to be learned.

Page 6

Perhaps this article   will   inspire  you  to  contribute  to  that
knowledge.  In your  experiments,  you  might  consider  trying  the
following: Operate several detector circuits at the  same  time  and
record the results.

Separate the detectors  --  even  by  many  miles --and record their
outputs.  In such experiments, the  author  found that the circuits'
outputs were very similar.  Those results would seem  to  count  out
local EMI or pure random noise as the cause of the circuit response.

For more information  on  the  subject  of gravity you might consult
_Gravitation_ by C. Misner, K. Thorne,  and J. Wheeler, published by
W.H.  Freeman and  Co.,  1973.   Also,  the article,  "Quantum  Non-
Demolition Measurements" in  _Science_,  Volume  209,  August 1 1980
contains useful information on the  QND  type  of  measurement  used
here.
--------------------------------------------------------------------
Sidebar: Rhysmonic Cosmology

Ancient and Renaissance physicists postulated the  existence  of  an
all-pervasive medium they  called  the _ether_.  Since the advent of
sub-atomic physics and relativity, theories of the ether have fallen
into disuse.

Rhysmonic cosmology postulates the  existence of rhysmons, which are
the fundamental particles of nature, and which pervade the universe,
as does the ether.

Each rhysmon has  the  attributes  of  size,  shape,  position,  and
velocity;  rhysmons are arranged in space in a matrix structure, the
density of which varies according to position in the universe.

The matrix structure  of  rhysmons  in  free space gives rise to the
fundamental units of length, time,  velocity, mass, volume, density,
and energy discovered by physicist Max Planck.

Fundamental postulates of the Rhysmonic Universe can  be  summarized
as follows:

* The universe is finite and spherical
* Euclidean  geometry  is  sufficient  to describe Rhysmonic Space.
* The edge of the universe is a perfect reflector of energy.
* Matter forms only in the central portion of the universe.

The matrix structure   of   rhysmons    allows   the   instantaneous
transmission of energy  along  a  straight  line, called  an  energy
vector, from the  point of origin to the edge of the universe, where
it would be reflected according  to  laws  similar  those  giverning
spherical optics.

In Rhysmonic Cosmology,  mass, inertia, and energy  are  treated  as
they are in  classical  mechanics.   Mass  arises,  according to the
author, because "particles in rhysmonic cosmology must be the result
of changes in the `density' of the  rhysmonic  structure,  since the
universe is nothing more than rhysmons and the void."

In a "dense" area of the universe, such as the core of a particle, a
number of rhysmons are squeezed togther.  This means that every

Page 7
particle has a    correlating   anti-particle,   or   an   area   of
correspondingly low density.  In addition,  a particle has an excess
of outward-directed energy  vectors,  and  an anti-particle  has  an
excess of inward-directed energy vectors.  Those vectors are what we
usually call electric charge.

Gravity is not  a  force  of attraction between objects; rather, two
objects are impelled towards each  other by energy vectors impinging
on the surfaces of those objects that do not face each other.

Netwon's laws of  gravitation  hold,  although their  derivation  is
different than in Newton's system.

Gravitational waves arise  in various ways, but, in general, a large
astronomical disturbance, such as  the  explosion  of  a  supernova,
instantaneously modulates the   rhysmonic  energy   vectors.    That
modulation might then  appear,  for  example,  superimposed  on  the
Earth's gravitaional-field flux --  and  it  would  be detectable by
circuits like those described here.
--------------------------------------------------------------------

Diagrams
--------

                                 Fig. 2 - A Basic gravity-wave
                                 detector is very simple.  The
 - - - - )| - - - -- - - - -.    charge build-up on capacitor C1
 .     Cx 470pF             .    is due to gravity-wave impulses
 .                          .    amplified by IC1 for output.
 .                          .
 .                          .
 .    R1 1.3M               .        R2 see text
 o----v^v^v^----------------o   -----v^v^v^------------------O DC
 |                          |   |                             Output
 |             ^            |   |
 |          _  | +9V        |   |
 |        2| \_|7           |   |
 o---------|   \_           |   |
_|_        |IC1  \_ 6       |   |     C2 see text
___ C1     | 741  _>--------o---o-----|(---------------------O Audio
 |  .22   3|    _/                                            Output
 o---------|  _/4
 |         |_/ |
 |             v -9V
 |
 |-----------------------------------------------------------O Gnd

Page 8

      Output
      R1 500K     R2 1.5M          R5 100K                     |
 -----^v^v^v------^v^v^v--    |----^v^v^v----------------------o
 |                   ^   |    |                                |
 |                   |   |    |                                |
 |          _        |___|    |       _    ^ +9V               |
 |        2| \_          |    |     6| \_  |                   |
 o---------|   \_        |    o------|   \_|8                  |
_|_C1      |IC1-a\_ 1    |    >R4    |IC1-b\_  7               |
___ .22    |1/2   _>-----o    >5K    |1/2   _>-----------------|
 |        3|1458_/       |    >     5|1458_/
 o---------|  _/       R3>    |  |---|  _/ |4
 |         |_/        10K><---|  |   |_/   |
 |                       >       |         v -9V
 |                       |       |
 |-----------------------o-------o-----------------------------O Gnd
Fig. 4 -- A buffered output stage  makes  the  gravity-wave detector
                 easier to use.

Parts List - Simple Detector       Parts List - Buffered Detector
All resistors 1/4-watt, 5%.        All fixed resistors 1/4-watt, 5%.
R1 - 1.3 megohm                    R1 - 500,000 ohms
R2 - see text                      R2 - 1.5 megohms, potentiometer
Capacitors                         R3 - 10,000 ohms, potentiometer
C1 - 0.22 uF                       R4 - 5000 ohms
C2 - see text                      R5 - 100,000 ohms
Cx - see text                      Capacitors
Semiconductors                     C1 - 0.22 uF
IC1 - 741 op-amp                   Semiconductors
                                  IC1 - 1458 dual op-amp
--------------------------------------------------------------------


Source: the web, adapted from online posting.

Don Mitchell 09:45, 21 July 2011 (MDT)