Light Speed

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How the conservation of charge can lead to a faster-than-c effect: A simple example

Authors: R. Y. Chiao
(Submitted on 3 Dec 2010)
Starting from the continuity equation and Ohm's law, it is demonstrated that electrons incident upon the center of a copper sphere will reappear instantly on the surface of the sphere. Consequences of such superluminal phenomena for general relativity will be discussed.

“To sum up, charge conservation leads to situations in which causal, faster-than-c effects can occur. At the quantum level of description, such effects can lead to causally superluminal charge and mass currents inside matter.


  • Light has been measured at a speed as low as 38 MPH through a Bose condensate.
  • Frank Znidarsic maintains that light travels slower within the positive Coulomb field of the atomic nucleus, which literally is the causative effect of Planck's constant.