Cosmic Red Shift

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Sent: Nov 27, 2013 10:56 AM
To: <several>

Subject: Re: 2 Teleconference]]


Here is my critique of your paper. 1.You start off with assumptions and then proceed to demolish the assumptions. To make this clear. The Hubble law is an empirical fact, and you can not disprove a fact.

Hubble's Law states the distance to galaxies is directly proportional to their Doppler velocity moving away from us, but there is no unequivocal data regarding the Doppler velocity of galaxies, and distances are difficult to estimate. Our velocity data consists of redshifts, which may or may not be due to velocity. Arp shows that the redshifts of quasars do not represent Doppler velocities. If quasars become galaxies, when in their growth do they begin to send redshift that is based only on Doppler velocity? We don't know. The MS measures galaxy distance by Doppler velocity, which they deduce from redshift. So distance and velocity depend on redshift, a variable with unknown cause(s), unless your OPINION is that velocity is the ONLY cause of redshift.

You can challenge the empirical basis of the fact. Arp is saying that the empirical basis of the fact is not universally true. That is to say that not every case conforms to the Hubble law. The Hubble law applies to large well developed galaxies and that to apply this law to other objects, different from these is false. His argument is that some objects such as Quasars have an intrinsic redshift not cosmological. So that to calculate the distance based on the redshift is misleading because you calculate the wrong distance. that is not to say the Hubble law is wrong.

We say Hubble's Law applies to large well developed galaxies, but that is only a conventional OPINION with little empirical justification. Hubble's data was based on galaxies less than 1% of the 13 billion light-year distance from Earth for which the Law is now applied. This is extreme EXTRAPOLATION, and it assumes that redshift is caused only by velocity and no other phenomena.


A Moire pattern created by DonEMitchell using POV-Ray open-source ray-tracing software. The image is rendered from a mathematical description of surface texture on a sphere (latitude stripes) that are six orders of magnitude smaller in scale than the image, about four orders of magnitude (1/10000 th) smaller than a pixel in the image.